语文论文范文

范文一:语文论文范文

语文论文范文|浅谈初中语文实践课资源开发的理念视野——以“感受衢州风光文化”一实践课为例

《语文课程标准》指出:“各地区都蕴藏着自然、社会、人文等多种语文课程资源,要有强烈的资源意识,去努力开发,积极利用。”因此,开展语文实践课教学,有利于学生在感兴趣的自主活动中全面提高语文素养,是培养学生主动探究、团结合作、勇于创新精神的重要途径,应该积极提倡。那么,哪些元素可以纳入语文实践课课程资源开发的理念视野?对此,笔者想以“感受衢州风光文化”一实践课为例,来诠释资源融合,开发创新的探索性思考。

一、活化教材资源,营构实践课教学的“效”度空间

语文实践课是以语文教材为依托的,注重学生生活和社会生活之间的整体联系,它以问题为中心,以活动为主要形式,促进学生语文素养的全面提高。新教材的综合性学习这一教学内容为语文实践课程提供了丰富的行为支点。为了体现编者的高远意图,促进理念的细化落实,我们就应因地制宜,根据学校地域的不同现状,学生的不同起点,真正把静态的教材内容转化成自主探究问题的资源。在上朱自清《春》一文时,我设计了这么一个情景教学,《秋日私语》的音乐轻轻响起,我让学生闭上眼睛想象一分钟:你仿佛看到了什么样的春天? (万物复苏,新的生命刚开始的春天;百花争艳,景色动人的春天;充满活力的春天等等)课堂上,同学们七嘴八舌,纷纷发表自己的意见。这时有个学生突然站起, “老师,什么时候让我们走出课堂,到野外去寻找春天?”,课堂上一下子欢声雀跃,争论不休,于是教师抓住了这个契机,激发学生适时去体会春天里家乡名胜烂柯山、江郎山、三衢山、钱江源等景区的景色。又如,在学《化石吟》一诗时,一位学生对诗中“长眠地下刚苏醒的化石啊,请向我一一讲述那奇幻的神话”提出了质疑(播放古生物重现图片),“为什么衢州龙游石窟到现在还是一个揭不开的谜呢?”教师紧紧抓住了这一个感兴趣的话题,引导学生从这些疑问中去积极探究。针对学生平时提出的疑问以及七年级《语文》(人教版)上册第三单元综合性学习的内容,我开展了一次“感受衢州风光文化”的语文实践的系列活动。在活动过程中,我以“熟悉家乡的奇山妙水和积淀家乡文化”为主题。创设课堂情境(播放着《高山流水》):名山大川,既清且丽,俗尚文学,有古遗风。衢州境内风景名胜众多,以孔氏家庙、烂柯山、江郎山、三衢山、龙游石窟、钱江源、卧龙山庄等景区为代表,有“圣、神、奇、秀、谜、源”之称。衢州历代名人贤达更是灿若繁星,来访衢州的文人墨客,如孟郊、杨炯、白居易、陆游、徐霞客等,也都讴歌了衢州的风土人情和奇山秀水。同学们,让我们带着课本中的疑问,走进衢州风光文化。利用双休日时间去参观游览,摄影考察、感受文化古城的风韵。与此同时我又与同学们初步制订了活动小组、活动方案。

语文是开放的,课例中,我让学生紧紧结合语文教学的聚焦点和发散点,联系生活实际,活化教材资源,把学生的心理世界外化于课堂。这样的课堂,表现出极大的丰富性和开发性,使学生的学习过程成为一个富有个性化的过程,成为一个实践体验不断生成与发展的

过程。这样的实践活动,我个人认为:a.学生参与度广;b.师生设计的方案有力度;(因为它本土化,生活化,并与教学内容和学生思想吻合度高,学生容易产生情感上共鸣,能对学生发展产生激励作用)c.设计内容有深度;d.教学立意有高度。这一切无疑延伸了实践课教学的“效”度空间。

二、提炼生活资源,拓展实践课教学的“信”度空间

语文实践课必须以学生的生活为基础,从学生的生活实际出发,引导学生理解生活的意义、生活的方式,扩展学生的生活经验,丰富学生的精神世界,使学生从思想到行动上,都能贴近生活,解读生活,享受生活。在“感受衢州风光文化”这系列实践课上,我播放着《春江花月夜》,创设了情境(二):衢州是全国闻名的文化古城,稼轩以撑持天地赞叹,袁枚用万岭藏天歌讴。灵山秀水,悠悠孔庙,赋予我们衢江区实验中学每位学生丰富的探寻资源,听,孔庙的清歌与雅乐,是如此的婉转清丽。衢州是国家级历史文化名城之一,作为衢江区实验中学的学生,我们在接受古文化的哺育、熏陶之后,更有义务去理解,去探索、去弘扬家乡的文化。因此围绕“感受衢州风光文化”的系列实践活动,我们进一步明确了更具体的活动目标:

1.知识点:搜集赞扬家乡风光文化的诗句,了解国家级历史文化名城衢州。围绕“我骄傲——我是衢州人”的系列活动来展望衢州美好的明天。

2.能力点:通过自主、合作、探究的学习方式,多渠道收集、记录整理资料,在活动中培养发现问题、分析问题、解决问题的能力,同时培养团队精神,体验愉快的合作。

3.行动点:教师以传承家乡文化为目的,引导学生用“口”宣传我们的家乡,用“手”时时刻刻装扮我们的家乡,用“心”去影响感染在我们衢州居住和观光的每一个朋友。如:利用各种宣传向世人推出我们衢州名胜,孔氏家庙、烂柯山、江郎山、三衢山、龙游石窟、钱江源、卧龙山庄等景区;衢州的特产,柑橘、开化龙顶、一掌三头、龙游发糕、江山猕猴桃等。

4.创造点:在认识家乡,认识衢州,为家乡做力所能及的贡献时,还要多动脑筋,为衢州美好的明天出谋划策,发出倡议。通过发掘家乡的文化资源来进一步推动衢州整体的腾飞。

让学生走进生活、走进大自然,强调学生的亲身经历。要求学生利用“五·一”长假的时间,在“做”“考察”“实验”“探究”“体验”“创作”等一系列的活动中观察生活,体悟人生。在这样的综合性学习活动中,能够缩短学生主体与知识客体之间的原有距离,促进学生主体对知识客体的认知建构和情感接纳,引导学生自然激活“生活经验”,达到了“语文生活化,生活语文化”的效果,加强了学生的语文实践能力,有效增添语文实践课的真实性和可信度。

三、汲取现代媒体信息,扩张实践课教学的“广”度空间

语文实践课不可随意,但在内容和形式上必须是开放的,能容纳多种内容,接受不同观点,与时俱进,及时更新,可以给师生更广阔的天地。内容上的开放可以使教师更好地把

握课改的实质,形式上的开放可以促进内容更趋科学、完整。合理利用各种媒体资源,无疑为学生观察世界,了解生活打开了一扇神奇的大门。无穷的网上资源,可使学生体会到“海阔凭鱼跃,天高任鸟飞”的感觉,在《感受衢州风光文化》的系列课上,我要求各大组同学要利用课外时间从网络、录音带、录像带、光盘、报刊、杂志、图书馆等媒体和机构搜索相关资料,进行加工处理。我向学生进行了“三推荐” :

推荐书目:郦道元《水经注》、《衢县志》、《衢州咏》

推荐电视台、电台:衢州市广播电视总台(衢州新闻)、(农技110特快)、(浙西先锋)、(衢州纵横)、广播新闻综合频道

推荐网站:衢州自然风光、衢州文化网、衢州市文广新局政务网、衢州旅游网、浙江衢州龙游石窟景区图片

教师在教学实践中,开其源,活其流,利用多种信息媒体,为他们提供接触社会,认识自我,增长才干,扩大视野的机会。通过现代媒体,扩张实践课教学的“广”度空间,培养学生学语文的浓厚兴趣,形成良好的语文素养。

四、探究本地文化资源,增加实践课教学的“厚”度空间

新课标的意思很明确,要求我们探究本地的自然环境、风俗文化、传统文化、校园文化、节日文化,把它们都变成有益的学习资源。教师要深入生活,了解生活,对本土资源做深层次的认识和探究,还要学会对传统的文化资源进行现代的激活和转换,使之具有现代活力和教育价值。在上《感受衢州风光文化》系列实践课时,我播放着《落雁平沙》,同学们交流着自己考察探究的结果。

学生甲:衢州地处浙江省西部,钱塘江源头,是浙江省的“西大门”,衢州旅游特色总体可以概括为生态走廊、神奇山水、人文荟萃。衢州神奇的旅游景点,具体表现为神圣而又奇特。神圣方面以“南国唯一”的南宗孔氏家庙和“围棋仙地”烂柯山为代表。与山东曲阜齐名的衢州孔氏南宗家庙,仿山东曲阜家庙的规模而建。衢州从此就成了中国儒家文化的两大圣地之一,被誉为“南孔圣地”。“围棋仙地”烂柯山,据史料记载,为世界围棋发源地,“山中方一日,世上已千年”的典故就出于此。衢州烂柯山也因这而成为天下名山。中外著名围棋高手聂卫平、马晓春等均慕名前来游览下棋,“世界围棋第一人”李昌镐也曾于2002年10月到烂柯山讲解千古名局——烂柯古谱。烂柯山已成为弘扬围棋文化的著名旅游景区。奇特方面以奇窟、奇柱、奇园、奇镇为代表。奇窟指的是被誉为“世界第九大奇迹”的龙游石窟,至今仍是千古之谜,极具考古和欣赏价值。

学生乙:衢州人文景观同样十分丰富多彩。衢州市区至今仍保存着六座古城门、2000余米古城墙、护城河保存较为完整;市区的赵抃祠、周宣灵王庙、天妃宫、神农殿、水亭门古城楼、衢州三怪、文公书院、修文书院、天宁寺、百床馆等景点,都能折射出衢州古城厚重的历史和深厚的文化。有两届奥运冠军占旭刚、当红影视明星周迅、何晴„„

学生丙:衢州物产丰富、特产众多。每个县(市、区)都有一批名牌旅游特色产品,如开化根雕、江山西砚、柯城莹白瓷等。尤其一批绿色农产品更受游客喜爱,其中有被称为“亚洲宽皮橘之王”的衢州椪柑,有江山猕猴桃与蜂产品、常山胡柚、龙游发糕与白莲、开化龙顶茶、衢江和柯城的杜仲茶、笋干等等。

课堂上他们纷纷展示自己考察、探究的结果,使原本内容单一的语文课堂变得丰厚立体。我要求各大组同学再次利用课余时间,通过各种途径搜集讴歌衢州人文景观和名优特产的诗句、对联;编撰成图文并茂的小报等活动。

同学们热情高涨,搜集许多诗歌、对联,例:

语文学习的涵盖范围、深入程度要求我们要有意识地结合本地文化资源,融会贯通, 迁移知识,由薄到厚,达到“取法于课内,获益于课外”,自主开发综合性学习的课程资源。这样,我们的语文教学才是灵活的,开放的,可持续发展的。

回望这次活动课的过程,同学们获取资源的途径是非常丰富的。是的,实践课若能活化教材资源、提炼生活资源,汲取现代媒体信息,探究本地文化资源, 就能构建实践课的有效资源。这些丰富纷呈的课程资源,能够延伸实践课教学的“效”度空间、 “信”度空间、 “广”度空间、 “厚”度空间,若能资源融合,最终必将合力造就实践课的理想空间!

范文二:英语论文范文2

中国茶文化

学生姓名: XXX

学 号: 04D2301009

班 级: 04旅游英语1班

专业方向 _________________

指导老师: XXX 老师

总评成绩 ________________

湖北省经济管理干部学院南湖校区外语系

2007年__月

The Culture of The Chinese Tea

by XXX

Supervisor:

Academic Title:

Signature: _ (指导教师)

______, 2007

Acknowledgements

I should like to express my indebtedness to Ms.Lee, my thesis supervisor, whose detailed advice and painstaking and invaluable criticism of earlier drafts had a major impact on the final shape of the paper.

I also should like to thank the authors and publishers, whose articles and books my thesis paper is based on.

——XXX

Foreign Languages Department

Nanhu Campus Hubei Institute of Economics and management

18.05. 2007

Abstract

The Chinese tea is broad and profound ,and it has a long history. Long time ago, people found tea can

make people spirited and think clearly, so it became one of seven daily necessities. There are six kinds of

tea, namely Green tea, Black tea, Yellow tea, White tea, Oolong tea, Flower tea and Puer tea. Each part of

China has its own special type of tea. China is truly the hometown of tea. All tea used in the world now are

from China originally. Chinese tea culture has the same long history as Chinese culture. In this paper, I will

summarize something about the tea history and the use for people's health, and point out why Chinese look

tea as one of the three famous drink in the world.

Key words: Tea; history; health ;Culture ; Chinese

摘 要

中国的茶叶艺术博大精神,并且渊源流长。很早以前人们就发现饮茶可以说是是人们每日

必不可少的饮品,它可以使人神清气爽,精神百倍。茶共有六种:绿茶,黑茶,黄茶,白茶, 乌龙茶,花茶和普洱茶。由于中国地势广阔,所以每个地域都可以说有特殊的茶种。中国不愧

是茶叶的发源地。现在世界的茶叶起初都是由中国传入。中国的茶文化同她的历史一样悠久。 在这篇论文里,我简单的概括了一些关于茶叶的历史和对人体健康的优化作用,并且附带说明

了为什么中国的茶不愧是世界三大饮料之一!

关键词:茶;历史;健康;文化

附件三:

Table of Contents

Abstract in English……………………………………………….……………… i

Abstract in Chinese……………………………………………………………… ii

1.Introduction…………………………………………………………………….

2.Language……………………………………………………………

3.1 The Culture of The Chinese Tea………………...................

3.1.1 The Culture of The Chinese Tea …………………………………

3.1.2 The Culture of The Chinese Tea…………………………………

3.2 The Culture of The Chinese Tea……………………………………………..

3.2.1 The Culture of The Chinese Tea.………………………………..

3.2.2 The Culture of The Chinese Tea…………………………………

3.3 Masculinization of Evil…………………………………………...................

3.3.1 Masculinization of evil in English………………………………………

3.3.1.1Crime …………………………………………………………….

3.3.1.2 Cruelty and violence…………………………………………….

3.3.1.3 Libertine…………………………………………………………

3.3.2 Masculinization of evil in Chinese …………………………………….

3.3.2.1 Crime…………………………………………………………….

3.3.2.2 Cruelty and violence.…………………………………………….

3.3.2.3 Libertine…………………………………………………………

4. Conclusion………………………………………………………..…………...

Bibliography………………………………………………………... ……………. 1

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— Ancient Chinese poem

China is the home country of tea. Before the Tang Dynasty, Chinese tea was exported by land and sea, first to Japan and Korea, then to India and Central Asia an

d, in the Ming and Qing dynasties, to the Arabian Peninsula.

After Ming and Qing Dynasty, tea culture seemed to take on a tendency of returning to the most basics in nature with less people deliberately seeking quality water and less occasions on which tribute tea was blindly elaborated. People paid more attention to and placed more stress on the pure flavor of tea and its inherent taste through which spiritual pursuit could be realized, solace to soul could be obtained and the pursuit for a supreme bourn that human being and nature had been integrated into one entity could be attained

Chinese tea culture

Chinese tea culture has a long history.Tea culture entered its most prosperous ear in Tang and Song Dynasty, which had evolved into a condition that the fashion drinking tea had extended all over the country and tea had thus won the status as national beverage. And at that moment Luyu who was honored as “ the Saint of Tea” and his masterpiece The Scripture of Tea appeared which promoted the Chinese tea culture to an altitude that had never been previously attained. Those continually emerging eminent figures in the tea industry propelled an intentional pursuit for water, tea, tea set and decoction in tea drinking to such an extreme elegance, perfection, delicacy and sophistication, so much so that in late Tang and Song Dynasty, an extravagant fashion was formed and occurred in tea culture.

Tea culture is of much elegance. In the contemporary society, tea culture plays a role of enriching cultural and leisure life, promoting the development of tea-related economy and trade, and propelling culture exchange between nations. In the 21st century, tea culture will grow to an even larger scale, involve an even wider range of fields, perform an even stronger function and bring an even closer integration of tradition and modern times which will in turn promote tea culture to an international level

Chinese tea is part of Chinese culture.Many people likes drinking tea,and a lot of kinds of tea have become famous.Tea has a long history in China.There are a variety of good tea which attract many foreigns.So we must do more to improve Chinese tea and add up more history stories and culture to it.At the same time ,we should prevent some bad tea from damaging the fame of Chinese tea.Only by doing so can Chinese tea become more and more popular and valuable.

That the fashion drinking tea had extended all over the country and tea had thus won the status asnational beverage. And at that moment Luyu who was honored as “ the Saint of Tea” and his masterpiece The Scripture of Tea appeared which promoted the Chinese tea culture to an altitude that had never been previously attained. Those continually emerging eminent figures in the tea industry propelled an intentional pursuit for water, tea, tea set and decoction in tea drinking to such an extreme elegance, perfection, delicacy and sophistication, so much so that in late Tang and Song Dynasty, an extravagant fashion was formed and occurred in tea culture. The Chinese people, in their drinking of tea, place much significance on the act of

atching a bit of leisure from a busy schedule, making a kettle of strong tea, securing a serene space, and serving and drinking tea by yourself can help banish fatigue and frustration, improve your thinking ability and inspire you with enthusiasm. You may also imbibe it slowly in small sips to appreciate the subtle allure of tea-drinking, until your spirits soar up and up into a sublime aesthetic realm. Buildings, gardens, ornaments and tea sets are the elements that form the ambience for savoring tea. A tranquil, refreshing, comfortable and neat locale is certainly desirable for drinking tea. Chinese gardens are well known in the world and beautiful Chinese landscapes are too numerous to count. Teahouses tucked away in gardens and nestled beside the natural beauty of mountains and rivers are enchanting places of repose for people to rest and recreate themselves.

China is a country with a time-honored civilization and a land of ceremony and decorum. Whenever guests visit, it is necessary to make and serve tea to them. Before serving tea, you may ask them for their preferences as to what kind of tea they fancy and serve them the tea in the most appropriate teacups. In the course of serving tea, the host should take careful note of how much water is remaining in the cups and in the kettle. Usually, if the tea is made in a teacup, boiling water should be added after half of the cup has been consumed; and thus the cup is kept filled so that the tea retains the same bouquet and remains pleasantly warm throughout the entire course of tea-drinking. Snacks, sweets and other dishes may be served at tea time to complement the fragrance of the tea and to allay one's hunger. The Buddhist monks also began drinking tea in large quantity in order to attain a better meditation on Buddhism. Their study on tea, interpretation of tea and pursuit for tea was completely different from the secular people. With the introduction of religious tinge and Buddhist meditation into the tea culture, a unique phenomenon in the history of Chinese tea culture came forth, that is an integration of tea and Zen.

Chinese tea can be traced back to 3000 years ago when people knew some herbs smell nice to whet one's appetite. Originally, the Chinese people didn't treat the tea as a valuable thing as functional herbs as medicines did. Gradually, people feel more refresh and more energetic after drinking tea. They realized that this kind of herb was healthy and wholesome. It would act not only as nourish herb,but also as medicine to cure diseasess

The recent study shows that dring green tea can reduce the risk of heart attack and cancers. It also can help you lose weight. So in America, powder of green tea, according the regulation, should be added into children' food to prevent them from illness. So Chinese tea is very popular abroad.

knowledge on making tea

Water quality can affect the tea's taste. Ancient Chinese used spring water from mountains to make their teas. Rain, snow and water from rivers, lakes or streams are suitable for making tea. Tap water, which has too much chlorine, should not be used. Nowadays, purified water and mineral water are used to make tea.

Water temperature is important. For common green, brown and scented teas, the water should be between 80 C and 90 C. Water used to make famous teas, such as Biluochun and Longjing, should be between 75 C and 80 C. The tea will lose its nutritional value if the water is too hot. For Oolong tea, the temperature should exceed 95 C.

about Chinese tea culture

Just as coffee became a part of daily life in the West, tea became a part of daily life in China. One can see tea houses scattered on the streets of China . The Chinese have such a close relationship with tea that a cultural phenomenon relating to tea is rising up.

The Chinese tea Culture includes articles, poems, pictures about tea, the art of making and drinking tea, and some customs about tea.

Tea plays an important role in Chinese social and emotional life. Tea is always offered to a guest immediately upon entering a Chinese home. Serving a cup of tea is more than a matter of mere politeness. It is a symbol of togetherness, a sharing of something enjoyable, and a way of showing respect to visitors.

[Tea enthusiasts have extolled the health benefits of their favorite drink for centuries. In recent times most attention has been paid to the beneficial effects of tea . Tea is rich in minerals and vitamins such as Vitamin C and the B vitamins. It contains manganese, magnesium, potassium and fluoride.

Tea has always been a common beverage. In recent years, its beneficial effect on health has been noted. There have been numerous reports on the benefi of tea in the prevention of cancer and other diseases.

Tea contains catechin. In its oxidized condensed product, antibodies of oxidization can prevent formation and growth of cancerous cells.

The fragrant oil in tea could break down fat in the body and benefit those who are overweight, as well as those with blood pressure and heart problems.

Tea is also a deodorant thus drinking tea in the mornings will freshen up your breath for the day.

In general, tea contains lots of nutrients, hence drinking tea will certainly be beneficial to health. It is estimated that half of the world population practice tea drinking daily. Tea is definitely one of the most common health care beverage throughout the whole world.](1)

Although there has been an increasing amount of literature about tea in recent years, such literature is certainly not new. During the Song Dynasty, Lu Yu, who is known as the

Chinese prefer pottery wares to wares made of metal or other materials. The best choice is the purple clay wares made in Yixing and Jingdezhen, Jiangsu provinc

e. The purple clay of this region gives the wares their internationally-known purple color.

(1)From: http://www.tealegend.com/data/2006/0609/article_6672.htm Writer: Fengml

范文三:英语论文范文

英语论文范文

How to improve your English in full detail (my experience) The Third EditionTo be good at English is not particularly easy but not terribly hard either.Before you start to learn sentences, or new words, the first and also the most important step is the "pronunciation". To pronounce perfectly you should buy a tape to assist you to learn and practise. This is the fundamental step to learn English, ignore or pay no attention to this step; you will not learn proper English and you will find the later steps more and more difficult. If you are solid and accurate in

pronunciation, you will find the later steps much easier and you will stand firmly on the right track.After mastering the pronunciation perfectly, it is the time to accumulate new words and useful expressions. Of course start from the simplest words like “hello, hi, you, me, he, him, his, her”, etc.... and expressions like “how are you, how old are you, how do you do”, etc.......... It is essential to write the words on a piece of paper so that you remember them well. Actually everyone had done these at his/her primary school.*************Now let me tell you how I learnt English in China. *******************Speaking:In China, you won't have enough chances to speak English. What I did was in the morning I got up early and read aloud the texts in the textbooks. The initial aim was to achieve the same speed as the tape, and then being able to read aloud the texts with the same style as the English announcer in the tape. By doing this, it helps you to consolidate your pronunciation and

grammar.Listening:Nowadays it is much easier to learn English in China because you can watch some TV channels in English. The more channels in English the better because you can choose your preferred programmes and it helps you to learn English with interests of your own, hence ideal for listening and expression/words accumulations.Writing:It is also very useful to write diaries. On writing diaries, it is not useful if you just write it without the care of grammar and spelling. When you finish you should always read your diaries again to check for errors and refine your sentences (e.g. remove repetitive words, use better expressions, and sort out the structure of the sentences).Reading:It is also very important to read story books in English, starting from thin ones with not many new words. Read as many thin books as you possibly can. Little by Little you will want to read thicker books, and your reading ability will get even better.Putting four elements together:I have to emphasise that when you do all these reading, listening, writing and speaking; you should join them together as a whole, apply the new words you learn from watching TV, reading books to your writing and speaking.The enhancement of learning comes from getting hold of the possible opportunities to speak English

(in China or abroad):In China, you should try to go to local English corner to practise your oral English. If you are abroad then you should make a lot of English or international friends so you always have the opportunity to speak English.On Spoken English, attitude is very

important. You need to be very keen and you must not be shy. Never be afraid to make mistakes. Always think that a talk in English with some one will help you significantly.You can think in this way: since my parents have paid so much to support me to study abroad, the money is partly spent on the international environment for learning English; therefore I ought to try my best to take every opportunity to practise my English. My English has risen to a higher level in the last 2 years, because I talk in English most of the time. Having some international friends is particularly useful indeed. Summing up the activities:I have also been watching TV too. The real improvement lies in staying with international friends long enough and watching a lot of TV such as news, football, dramas, documentaries etc.... Writing diaries also helps me to remember good words, good expressions and practise sentence structuring.*****Now, I have finished talking about how to learn and improve General English.It is the time to switch to "Your Major in English"

*******************************Knowing general English on its own is not going to be sufficient for most people. Skills are as important as mastering another language. General English helps people to communicate with each other in their lives. Technical English helps you to take on challenges to change the world for the highest, to earn money for your living for the lower.Some people who have a degree in English go abroad to learn something different but heavily based on the language such as Media study, Journalist, History, Education or even a bit more technical like Finance, Business Administration or Economics.It is extremely useful to know more because there are so many words in English and they appear differently to each other. For people whose second language is English, will find it difficult to guess the meaning of a new word.For sure, it is not possible to know everything.Pick a major first and put all your effort on that major, in the end you will have a rich vocabulary of that field.Difficulties on learning Technical English:To master technical English in your area of study, there are two difficulties to overcome.1, the language, because it is not your first language, you need to remember the terms, knowing how to pronounce it and spell it.2, surely you need to understand the terms in a technical fashion.No matter what field, it is going to be the same; the two difficulties above must be conquered.Here I take Physics as an example (note that whatever field you are looking into is going to be similar):The term "momentum" is basically the product of the mass of the object and the velocity it travels. Obviously, you need to understand mass and velocity as well. If you understand mass and velocity, then you get the explanation of the term "momentum" in physics,

then you are most likely to understand the word and use it properly in the technical world of Physics. From this example, you can see how to understand a technical word in a technical fashion: you need to understand the very fundamental knowledge of a field to be able to understand more complex terminologies or theories.Before learning technical English in your field of study, I have a good recommendation to save your time:To understand technical knowledge in your first language (Chinese), then you might not have the second difficulty.What it left to overcome is just the first difficulty (the language), hence the effort required is less.I can give you an example of my own:When I was learning chemistry at A-level, I had already learnt inorganic chemistry at the equivalent level in China, so I had no difficulty whatsoever in learning inorganic chemistry in the UK in English.But I had not learnt organic chemistry in China, and I was struggling significantly in learning organic chemistry in the UK due to dual difficulties.************OK, I have finished talking about how to improve your technical English.Now i will talk about IT (Information Technology), why is this important? Because nowadays it is the information age, you need to know computers, Internet, media and

communications etc. Knowing how to use Internet to search information will help your English. ************I don't want to waffle too much on this. Computers are more and more important nowadays, everyone wants a computer and most people have their own computers. But most people are not using the right Operating System for learning English. Now I would like to introduce you to Debian Linux Operating system or a much nicer operating system called Ubuntu Linux. If you still don't have a computer you can buy a China's home grown computer based on a Loongson CPU. It saves your electricity and your time to deal with viruses.Linux will help you to improve your English skills because you need to read some documents and follow the instructions to set up software programs, it also requires you to search the Internet (Google for example) to find the answers to your problems (e.g. installations of software programs)you can read about the commands of Linux in the terminal by putting in "man " , so then you can read it and try to understand the content which will enable you to carry out the right operations. The whole process of Reading, Understanding and deploying will improve your English.When you install, do remember to install it as a UK English version.(Note that this IT section is more for people who take Science and Engineering

courses)**********************************************************************Final wordsIt is the time to end this long talk on improving English.How good your English will be will heavily depend on how good your first language is.So when you go back to China for holidays, you should read as much as you can in Chinese because this will also help your English in a greater

depth.***************************************************************

******Please note that the above is my own experience, it might not apply to you completely since your learning style could be different. Please take the advice which is right for you. I would regret deeply if my experience damaged your learning or wasted your time. Please look at it sensibly. This is the third edition of “How to improve your English in full detail (my experience)”, I have made some corrections and changes to the second edition, and I hope that this is useful to you. I wish you all the best!

Welcome to Our SchoolThere are many different kinds of buildings and houses in our school.We can walk in our beautiful garden after class.We can borrow books from our library.We can read books,newspapers or

magazines in the reading room.When we are hungry,we can eat in the dining room.There are also many trees in our school.Our school is really beautiful.I'm sure you will like it.

范文四:英语范文2

1。Today i and friends of foreign travel, outside air is very good, people feel very comfortable. We all appreciate the fine girls bicycles. We enjoyed the beautiful nature brought. We happily spent a happy day. 今天和朋友一起出外交游,外面的空气很好,人感觉很舒服。我们骑着自行车一路欣赏鸟语花香。享受着大自然带给我们的无限美好。大家开开心心地度过了愉快的一天。

2。Today Mailehaoduo clothes, and parents take to the streets is happy, the parents have to pay to buy things. Unlike in their street to buy things they like to take a long time but saw the price, Ha-ha, is really very happy. I love my parents, I too thank them for the care and love. `` 今天买了好多衣服,和父母上街就是愉快,买东西有父母帮付钱。不像平时自己上街买东西碰到喜欢的但看了价钱都要考虑好久,呵呵,真的是很开心。我爱我的父母,太感谢他们对我的关心和爱戴了。

3.Flute " Robinson Crusoe " of good fortune, novelist of British, describe

protagonist drift about on the island, overcome the difficulty, the legend story of pioneering an enterprise with painstaking efforts. Novel write true naturally, legendary. The protagonist plants the crops on the detached island, puts up the log cabin, has eaten the innumerable trials and tribulations, survive. Want, go back human world anxious, want to go how about go out of these damnable place only like make him to be fascinated, result fail, get back to, long separated for Britain for 28 year give me enlightenment by " Robinson's records of adventure " on 1868 year finally, tanacity of him let me wait for a chance to cause trouble, want, march toward another goal for life, look like Robinson like that spend one's own strength,reach ideal realm one's own. We need possess Robinson so spirit of struggle diligently.

英国小说家笛福的《鲁滨逊漂流记》描述了主人公漂流海岛,战胜困难,艰苦创业的传奇故事. 小说写得真实自然,富有传奇色彩.主人公在孤岛上种庄稼,搭木屋,吃了千辛万苦,生存下来.但想回人间的心切,使他着迷般地只想到如何走出这个鬼地方,结果还是失败了,最后于1868年回到阔别28年的英国

《鲁滨孙漂流记》给我以启示,他的顽强让我蠢蠢欲动,想要迈向人生的另一目标,像鲁滨孙那样用自己的力量,到达自己理想的境界。

我们需要具备鲁滨逊那样的刻苦奋斗的精神.

The World's Greatest Swordsman

At an exhibition of the world's best swordsman, the third-place fencer took the stage. A fly was released, and with an arc of his sword he cut the fly in half. The crowd cheered. Then the second-place man sliced a fly into quarters. A hush fell in anticipation of the world's greatest swordsman.

His blade came down in a mighty arc - but the insect continued on its way! The crowd was aghast. The greatest swordsman had missed his target completely, yet he continued to smile.

"Why are you so happy?" someone yelled. "You missed!"

"Ah," replied the swordsman, "you weren't watching very carefully. They fly lives, yes - but he will never be a father."

世界上最伟大的击剑手

在一场世界最佳击剑手表演中,排名第三的击剑手上场了。一只苍蝇放了出来,剑划了一个弧,他将苍蝇劈成了两半。观众欢呼起来。紧接着排名第二的人将一只苍蝇切成了四半。现场一阵沉默,人们期盼着世界上最伟大的击剑手出场。

他的剑锋以一个巨大的弧线划了下来--然而那只昆虫还在继续飞行!观众被惊呆了。最伟大的击剑手完全错过了他的目标,然而他还在微笑着。

“你为什么这么高兴?”有人嚷道,“你没击中!”

“啊,”剑手答道,“你刚才没有很仔细地看。苍蝇还活着,是的--但他永远也做不成爸爸了。”

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A Mistake

An American, a Scot and a Canadian were killed in a car accident. They

arrived at the gates of heaven, where a flustered St. Peter explained that there had been a mistake. "Give me $500 each," he said, "and I'll return you to earth as if the whole thing never happened."

"Done!" said the American. Instantly, he found himself standing unhurt near the scene.

"Where are the others?" asked a medic.

"Last I knew," said the American, "the Scot was haggling price, and the Canadian was arguing that his government should pay."

搞错了

一位美国人,一位英格兰人和一位加拿大人在一场车祸中丧生。他们到达天堂的门口。在那里,醉醺醺的圣彼德解释说是搞错了。“每人给我五百美元,”他说,“我将把你们送回人间,就象什么都没有发生过一样。”

“成交!”美国人说。立刻,他发现自己毫不损伤地站在现场附近。

“其他人在哪儿?”一名医生问道。

“我离开之前,”那名美国人说,“我看见英格兰人正在砍价,而那名加拿大人正在分辩说应该由他的政府来出这笔钱。”

————————————————————————————————————————

Pig or Witch

A man is driving up a steep, narrow mountain road. A woman is driving down the same road. As they pass each other, the woman leans out of the window and yells "PIG!!" The man immediately leans out of his window and replies, "WITCH(女巫)!!" They each continue on their way, and as the man rounds the next corner, he crashes into a pig in the middle of the road. If only men would listen.

猪还是女巫

一个男人在一条陡峭狭窄的山路上驾车,一个女人相向驾车而来。他们相遇时,那个女的从窗中伸出头来叫到:“猪!!”那个男的立即从窗中伸出头来回敬道:“女巫!!”他们继续前行。这个男的在下一个路口转弯时,撞上了路中间的一头猪。要是这个男的能听懂那个女人的意思就好了。

—————————————————————————————————————————

Response Ability

An Ogden, Iowa, minister was matching coins with a member of his

congregation for a cup of coffee. When asked if that didn't constitute gambling, the minister replied, "It's merely a scientific method of determining just who is going to commit an act of charity."

Philosopher Bertrand Russell, asked if he was willing to die for his beliers, replied: "Of course not. After all, I may be wrong."

A newspaper organized a contest for the best answer to the question: "If a fire broke out in the Louvre, and if you could only save one painting, which one would you carry out?"

The winning reply was: "The one nearest the exit."

答问技巧

衣阿华州奥格根的一位牧师正在与一位教友为一杯咖啡而猜硬币。别人问他那是否构成赌博行为时,牧师答道:“这仅仅是决定由谁来做一件善事的一种科学方法。”

当我人问哲学家罗素是否愿意为了他的信仰而献身时,他答道:“当然不会。毕竟,我可能会是错的。”

一份报纸组织了一场竞赛,为下面的问题征集最佳答案:“如果卢浮宫起了火,而你只能救出一幅画,你将救出哪一幅?”

获奖的答案是:“最接近门口的那一幅。”

————————————————————————————————————————

Jonesie The Great Lion Hunter

A small village was troubled by a man-eating lion. So its leaders sent a message to the great hunter, Jonesie, to come and kill the beast.

For several nights the hunter lay in wait for the lion, but it never appeared. Finally, he told the village chief to kill a cow and give him its hide. Draping the skin over his shoulders, he went to the pasture to wait for the lion.

In the middle of the night, the villagers woke to the sound of blood-curdling shrieks coming from the pasture. As they carefully approached, they saw the hunter on the ground, groaning in pain. There was no sign of the lion.

"What happened, Jonesie? Where is the lion?" asked the chief.

"Forget the damn lion!" he howled. "Which one of you idiots let the bull loose?"

伟大的猎手Jonesie

有个小村庄正为一只吃人的狮子而烦恼。于是,村长派人去请伟大的猎手Jonesie来杀死这只野兽。

猎手躺着等了几个晚上,但狮子一直没有出现。最后,他要求村长杀只羊然后把头皮给他。把羊皮披在身上后,猎人到草原上去等狮子。

半夜,村民被从草原传来的声嘶力竭的尖叫声惊醒。他们小心地靠近后,看到猎手正躺在草地上痛苦地呻吟。没有狮子出没的蛛丝马迹。

“Jonesie,怎么了?狮子在哪?”村长问。

“哪有狮子!”猎人怒吼道,“哪个傻瓜把公牛放出来了?”

————————————————————————————————————————

Weather Predict

A film crew was on location deep in the desert. One day an old Indian went up to the director and said, "Tomorrow rain." The next day it rained.

A week later, the Indian went up to the director and said, "Tomorrow storm." The next day there was a hailstorm.

"This Indian is incredible," said the director. He told his secretary to hire the Indian to predict the weather.

However, after several successful predictions, the old Indian didn't show up for two weeks.

Finally the director sent for him. "I have to shoot a big scene tomorrow," said the director, "and I'm depending on you. What will the weather be like?"

The Indian shrugged his shoulders. "Don't know," he said. "Radio is broken."

天气预报

一个电影摄制组在沙漠深处工作.一天,一个印度老人到导演跟前告诉导演说"明天下雨."第二天果然下雨了.

一周后,印度人又来告诉导演说,"明天有风暴."果然,第二天下了雹暴.

"印度人真神,"导演说.他告诉秘书雇佣该印度人来预报天气.

几次预报都很成功.然后,接下来的两周,印度人不见了.

最后,导演派人去把他叫来了."我明天必须拍一个很大的场景,"导演说,"这得靠你了.明天天气如何啊?"

印度人耸了耸肩."我不知道,"印度人说,"收音机坏了."

——————————————————————————————————————————

I Am Acting Like a Lady

One day when women's dresses were on sale at the FarEast Department Store, a dignified middle-aged man decided to get his wife a piece. But he soon found himself being battered by frantic women.

He stood it as long as he could; then, with head lowered and arms flailing, he plowed through the crowed.

"You there!" challenged a thrill voice. "Can't you act like a gentleman?"

"Listen," he said, "I have been acting like a gentleman for an hour. From now on, I am acting like a lady."

我要表现得象位女士

一天,远东百货公司的女装大减价,一位高贵的中年男士想给太太买一件。可是,没过多久,他发现自己已被疯狂的女人冲得踉踉跄跄。

他竭力忍耐着。后来,他低下头,挥动双臂,挤过人群。

“你干嘛?”有人尖声叫道,“你难道不能表现得象位绅士吗?”

“听着,”他说,“我已经象绅士一样表现了一个小时。从现在起,我要表现得象个女士。”

范文五:论文评语范本

集美大学

毕业设计(论文)评语、成绩

题目 论网络时代企业形象的塑造 学 院 成人教育 专业、班级 姓 名 曾颖华 学 号 指导教师 张海艳 职 称 助理研究员

注:该评语、成绩一式两份,一份存入毕业设计(论文)资料袋,一份存入学生档案

2016年3 月

毕业设计(论文)导师评语

评语:如今“互联网+”的时代已经来临, 互联网时代的来临不仅对企业的发展产生了巨大的影响和作用,同时也带来了前所未有的机遇和挑战。企业利用互联网提升自身形象成为非常重要的手段与途径。本论文将从以下四个部分来探讨网络时代下企业形象的塑造。首先通过对企业形象的相关概述以及企业形象的定义与构成要素来对企业形象的塑造有一个全面系统的认识。其次研究企业形象的塑造对企业的发展具有重大的作用。接着分析网络时代下企业形象所具有的一些显著的特点。然后再分析如今企业在企业形象的塑造上所遇到的问题。最后针对这些问题通过猎聘网的案例来探讨网络时代下如何塑造企业形象。确定了《论网络

时代企业形象的塑造》作为学士学位论文选题,具有一定的现实意义。 在论文的写作过程中,曾颖华同学态度端正,组织纪律性较强,除了全部阅读指导老师指定的参考资料、中外文献,还阅读了大量的与论文有关的自选资料,

并根据要求写出了两万字以上的读书笔记。 论文论点正确,论据可靠,并对论点进行了一定的阐述,表明作者能运用所

学理论知识阐述有关问题;论文结构较合理,符合逻辑,文章层次较分明。 综上所述,我认为该论文已达到学士学位论文的学术水平。 成绩: 分

指导老师签名:

年 月 日

备注:

毕业设计(论文)评审意见

评审意见:网络时代的到来给企业形象塑造带来前所未有的机遇和挑战,互联网对企业的发展已经产生巨大的影响和作用,企业利用网络提升形象成为重要的手段。网络环境下的企业形象研究必须引起重视,传统环境下的企业形象研究已经比较成熟,但当前网络环境下的企业形象,无论是理论研究还是实践探讨都还有待于深入。如何利用网络塑造企业形象是一个值得探讨的课题。曾颖华同学的论文选题具有一定的现实意义。 该篇论文,通过对企业形象的相关概述以及企业形象的定义与构成要素来对企业形象的塑造有一个全面系统的认识。其次研究企业形象的塑造对企业的发展具有重大的作用。接着分析网络时代下企业形象所具有的一些显著的特点。然后再分析如今企业在企业形象的塑造上所遇到的问题。最后针对这些问题通过猎聘网的案例来探讨网络时代下如何塑造企业形象。论文论点正确,符合逻辑,文章层次较分明,结构较合理,语句通畅。表明作者对实际问题具有一定的分析能力和概括能力。

综上所述,论文已达到学士学位论文的学术水平。

成绩: 分

评审人签字: 职称

年 月 日

毕业设计(论文)答辩评语

评语:曾颖华同学撰写的《论网络时代企业形象的塑造》 一文,在清晰阐

企业形象塑造的显著特点,着重研究了如今塑造企业形象上存在的问题与针对性的解决办法。选题具有一定现实意义;文章结构合理,具有一定的逻辑性;层次较分明,语句通顺。

在答辩过程中,该同学能比较清晰地阐述论文的主要内容,对所提出的猎聘网在微信微博上的企业形象塑造是如何做的主要问题能较恰当地回答,且对相关知识有一定的了解。

根据论文的水平和答辩效果,经答辩小组讨论,给予 分。

答辩成绩 分

工商管理 专业答辩小组组长签名:

年 月 日

范文六:英语范文3

1. 新疆2010年中考英语作文题目:用英语介绍暑假计划

暑假将要来临,为了度过一个充实而有意义的暑假,Mary想在班会上发言,告诉同学们她自己的暑假计划,请你按照下面表格内的要点,以Mary的身份写一篇发言稿,字数80 - 100之间。

注:

1. 文章要包括表格内所有的信息。

2. 可适当发挥但不得出现真实的个人信息(人名、地名、学校名等)。

参考范文:

Summer vacation is coming. Here are my plans.

First, I need some time to do my homework. Every day I need 15 minutes’ morning

reading to improve my reading and writing skills. I am going to spend 30 minutes doing my homework. Second, doing sports every day is necessary for me, I want to stay in good health. Third, I want to help my mom with the chores (housework), such as doing the laundry (washing), sweeping the floor or taking out the trash (rubbish). Last, I will visit Qindao with my parents. We will stay there for a week. We are going to visit the museum. We also want to go to the beach and have fun together.

2. 长沙市2010年中考英语作文题目 介绍笔友

假设你的笔友(来自美国的Mike)下个月将到你校交流学习,请你把Mike的情况提前介绍给同学们。

要求:

1、内容包括(1)Mike 的家庭情况。

(2)Mike的性格特点和兴趣爱好。

(3) Mike的父母和同学对他的评价。

(4) Mike来中国的原因。

2、字数:60-80词。

3、短文中不得出现你的真实姓名、学校名和地名。

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

参考范文:

My pen pal, Mike, will come to our school to study next month. He is an American. He is fifteen. There are three people in his family. His father is an engineer, and his mother is a teacher. He is outgoing and he likes to help others. In his free time, he likes listening to pop music and playing basketball. His parents and classmates all think he is a lovely boy. He wants to learn Chinese, and he loves Chinese food. That’s the reason why he will come to China.

I hope you can make friends with him.

3. 深圳 :我心目中的成功人士

假如你们学校校报举行英语征文活动, 主题是“我心目中的成功人士”, 请你写一篇文章介绍一位你心目中的成功人士(可以使你身边熟悉的人或名人)。文章必须包含以下内容:1. 人物简介;2. 人物事迹;3. 给你的启发。(共1题,10分)

要求:

1)条理清楚,意思连贯,语句通顺,标点正确、逻辑清晰;

2)假如写的是你身边的人物,文中不能呢个出现真实的姓名和校名; 3)80词左右。

参考范文:

范文一

A Successful Person in My Mind

The successful person in my mind is Lang Lang. He is one of the youngest and

most famous pianists of our time. However, his success came at a price. He spent most of his time practicing playing the piano when he was a little boy. At the age of 17, he became famous after he was chosen to play at a musical event in the U. S. A. Lang Lang’s experiences tell me that hard work leads to success and chances belong

to those who have made good preparations.

范文二

A Successful Person in My Mind

Jim, one of my classmates, is a successful person in my mind.Jim does well in

both his studies and sports. He has won a number of awards in many different competitions. What’s more, he is helpful and gets on well wi

th the classmates and

teachers.However, Jim’s success came through his day and night’s hard work.From

his experiences, I understand he meaning of “No pains, no gains.” And I will try my best to realize my dream.

4.福州 Let’s Do Sports

为满足人们日益增长的健身需求,我国政府于2009年将每年的8月8日定为“全民健身日”。今年的“全民健身日”即将来临,为了让这项活动更加深入人心,某英文报纸举办了一场征文比赛。现在请你以“Let’s Do Sports ”为题写一篇短文,向该报投稿。

内容提示:

*Do you think it is important for everyone to do sports? *What sports do you like?Why do you like it/them?

*Do you often do sports with your friends and parents?

*How often and how long do you do sports?

*How do you feel after doing sports?

要求:1、短文词数80左右;

2、必须包括上述提示内容,语句通顺、意思连贯,书写规范,可适当发挥;

3、短文中不得出现考生的姓名、校名及其他相关信息,否则不予评分。 Let’s Do Sports

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

参考范文:

Let’s Do Sports

I think it’s very important for everyone to do sports. I like sports because

they’re not

only good for my health but also good for my study. My favorite sport is swimming. Whenever

I am free, I will have a swim with my friends or my parents

in the swimming

pool.After swimming , I usually feel happy and relaxed. What’s more,I can put more energy

into my study. So let’s do sports, and we will become

stonger and stronger.

5. 南京市2010年中考英语作文题目:用英语介绍图书馆

假如你是王林,你的美国朋友Daniel将来南京学习,他想了解所到中学附近的滨江图书馆(Binjiang Public Library)。请根据海报中的信息,给他发一封电子邮件,介绍滨江图书馆的情况及部分馆区的功能。

注意:

1. 电子邮件中不得出现你的真实姓名和学校名称。

2. 语言通顺,意思连贯,书写规范。

3. 词数80左右。电子邮件的开头已经给出,不计入总词数。

Binjiang Public Library

Over 900,000 books and 13,000 electronic journals

Location: 18 Binjiang Road, Jianye District

Open: 8:00 a.m. (Mon. - Fri.) 9:00 a.m. (Sat. & Sun.) Closed: 5:00 p.m. (Mon. - Fri.) 8:00 p.m. (Sat. & Sun.) Sections: Loan Desk(借书处), Reading Room, Computing Room, Electronic Resources(资

源), Children’s Story Corner, Book Shop „

Functions:

● borrow & return books

● search for information on the Internet

● „

Dear Daniel,

I am pleased to know that you will come to Nanjing. ___________________________

Yours sincerely,

Wang Lin

参考范文:

Dear Daniel,

I am pleased to know that you will come to Nanjing. Here’s some information

about Binjiang Public Library.

The library, located at 18 Binjiang Road, Jianye District, has over over 900,000

books

and 13,000 electronic journals. It is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on

weekdays. On

weekends it is open for 11 hours. It is a good place to read and borrow books.

There are different sections in the library. You can not only borrow and return

books

at Loan Desk, but also read newspapers and magazines in Reading Romm. If you want

to search for information on the Internet, you can go to Computing Room. You can also buy some new books in Book Shop.

I believe you will find the library useful.

Yours sincerely,

Wang Lin

6.无锡市2010年中考英语作文题目:用英语写一篇慈善活动报道

假设不久前8名无锡青年沿大运河(the Grand Canal)进行了慈善行活动。请据此在答题卡上指定位置上,以“A Charity Bicycle Trip”为题,为某中学生英文报写一篇报道,内容要点如下:

1. 目的:为希望工程筹款;

2. 时间:5月20日离开无锡,6月5日到达北京;

3. 简况:虽然车程漫长,路途艰辛,但是他们一路上精神高昂;在很多人的帮助下,他们筹得善款5万多元;

4. 其它:他们在活动结束后的感受。

注意:

1. 报道须包括所给要点,要求语句通顺,意思连贯;

2. 第4要点的内容须用2至3句话展开合理想象,作适当发挥;

3. 词数80个左右,报道的开头已经给出,不计入总词数。

A Charity Bicycle Trip

Not long ago, eight young people from Wuxi made a charity trip along the

Grand Canal.

______________________________________________________________________________

参考范文:

Not long ago, eight young people from Wuxi made a charity bicycle trip along the

Grand Canal. The purpose of their trip was to raise money for Project Hope. They

left

Wuxi on May 20 and arrived in Beijing on June 5. Though the ride was long and

tough,they went all the way in high spirits. With the help of the people, they

collected / raised

more than 50,000 yuan. After the long trip, they were tired, but they were happy. They

were proud of what they had done. It is an unusual

experience that they will never forget.

范文七:论文范本(法语)

上海外国语大学贤达经济人文学院学士学位论文

菲永政府驱逐罗姆人的政策

L'expulsion de Roms par le gouvernement de Fillon

学 生: 学 号:

系:

专 业: 导 师:

上海外国语大学贤达经济人文学院

2011年5月

学士学位论文评阅书

学士学位论文指导记录表

学士学位论文开题报告

日期

论文诚信声明

本人郑重声明:

1、此学士学位论文是本人在指导教师指导下独立进行研究取得的成果。除了特别加以标注和致谢的地方外,本文不包含其他人或其它机构已经发表或撰写过的研究成果。对本文研究做出重要贡献的个人与集体均已在文中作了明确标明。本人完全意识到本声明的法律结果由本人承担。

2、本人完全了解学校、学院有关保留、使用学位论文的规定,同意学校与学院保留并向国家有关部门或机构送交此论文的复印件和电子版,允许此文被查阅和借阅。本人授权上海外国语大学贤达经济人文学院可以将此文的全部或部分内容编入有关数据库进行检索,可以采用影印、缩印或扫描等复制手段保存和汇编本文。

3、若在上海外国语大学贤达经济人文学院学士学位论文审查小组复审中,发现本文有抄袭,一切后果均由本人承担(包括接受学士学位论文成绩不及格、缴纳学士学位论文重新学习费、不能按时获得学士学位证书等),与论文指导老师无关。

作者签名: 日期:

谢 辞

我首先衷心感谢罗„„老师,在我撰写论文过程中,他向我提出了很多宝贵的建议,并精心帮助我进行修改。我也要感谢在撰写论文过程中给与我大力支持的索菲和贝尔纳„„

„„

Remerciements

J'adresse mes sincères remerciements à Monsieur le professeur Luo ..., qui m’a

donné beaucoup de conseils précieux et m’a aidé(e) à corriger ce mémoire avec beaucoup de soins. Je tiens également à remercier Sophie et Bernard pour leur grand soutien ...

菲永政府驱逐罗姆人的政策

摘 要

数月以来,法国政府开始驱逐在法国境内无合法身份的罗姆人„„

本文首先对罗姆人这个民族的特点和在法国居住的现况进行了分析„„

关键词:法国政治、移民、罗姆人、萨科奇

L'expulsion de Roms par le gouvernement de Fillon

RESUME

Depuis quelques mois, le gouvernement français pratique la politique d'expulsion des Roms en situation irrégulière ...

Dans ce présent mémoire, nous ferons une analyse des particularités de cette ethnie et de l'état actuel des Roms séjournant sur le territoire français …

Mots-clés: politique française, immigré, Roms, Sarkozy

菲永政府驱逐罗姆人的政策

目 录

引言............................................................1 1.罗姆人的民族特点及在法国的居住现况 .............................2

1.1民族简史..................................................3 1.2在欧洲的分布现况.................................... ......4 1.3在法国的居住现况.......................................6 2.驱逐行为的实施.................................................7

2.1 媒体报道汇总................................................7 2.2反对的声音.................................... ......9 2.3国际社会的反应.......................................10 3.驱逐政策的由来.......................................11

3.1 „„ 3.2 „„ 3.3 „„

结论...............................................................15 参考文献.....................................................16

L'expulsion de Roms par le gouvernement de Fillon

Table des matières

Introduction........................................................1 1.Les particularités de l'ethnie et l'état de séjour en France.................2

1.1 Histoire de l'ethnie .........................................3 1.2 Répartition en Europe.................................... ......4 1.3 Etat de séjour en France.......................................6 2.Pratique d'expulsion................................................7

2.1 Faits rapportés..............................................7 2.2 Voix oppositives.................................... ......9 2.3 Réactions de la communauté internationale.........................10 3.L'origine de la politique.......................................11

3.1 „„ 3.2 „„ 3.3 „„

Conclusion.........................................................15 Bibliographie..................................................... 16

Introduction

Depuis quelques mois, le gouvernement français pratique la politique d'expulsion des Roms en situation irrégulière ...

«La France a agi et continuera à agir dans le strict respect du droit européen.» Jeudi après-midi, Nicolas Sarkozy a profité du sommet européen de Bruxelles pour balayer les critiques émises à l'égard de la politique française sur la question des Roms. Maintenant le cap, le chef de l'Etat a assuré lors d'une conférence de presse que la France continuera à «démanteler tous les camps illégaux» se trouvant sur son territoire, «quels que soient ceux qui s'y trouvent ».1

...

1

Bastien Hugues, « Roms : Sarkozy maintient le cap », Le Figaro, p.2.

Partie 1

Les particularités de l'ethnie et l'état de séjour en France

1.1 Histoire de l'ethnie

Les Roms est une ethnie répartie dans de nombreux pays européens. Ils sont

également appelés les « Gitans », dont beaucoup de branches mènent une vie errante...2

2

李博,《吉普赛民族史研究》,p.25.

1.2 Répartition en Europe

(以下章节略)

Les Roms habitent actuellement en Roumanie, en Allemagne ... et en France, où

ils ont installé environ ... camps dans ... villes.

Conclusion

Bibliographie

中文书目:

李博,《吉普赛民族史研究》,上海,长征出版社,2009年。

莫尼耶(雅克)著,张可译,《法国的民族问题》,西安文献出版社,2007年。 王澜,“萨科奇总统的新政策”,张„„主编,《上外贤达学报》,2010年5月第

39期。

刘奇,《法兰西的民族问题》,南京,新闻天下网(www.xinwen.com),2010-9-20。 „„

法文书目:

Bastien Hugues, « Roms : Sarkozy maintient le cap », Le Figaro, 17/09/2010, p.2. Dupont (Paul), La politique du gouvernement de Fillon, Bordeaux, La Mer, 2006. Meunier (Jacques), Problèmes ethniques en France, Paris, PUFF, 2008. ...

范文八:语文随笔范本

随笔范本 读书笔记〃摘抄

1、草以自己的柔韧步入了这个世界,那嫩嫩的令人惊喜的一点新绿在慢慢变大 变浓,再染成一片片浓碧,然后以一种不可阻挡的气势席卷了大地。一个个杂乱 无章的村庄在绿色中变得诗意葱茏,一片片恬然无声的田野变得生机勃勃,远山 被这神秘的春之手点拨着,草色驱走了山脊上的灰暗,将大山渲染得绿意盎然。 ——摘自《青草的声音》车永静 2、冬季铺地板的时候,为了避免地板在天热时鼓起来,要在地板和墙壁之间适 当留空,这是为季节留空,而人生也是如此吧,我们应当有一颗完满的心,但同 时我们还应该有一份为境况留空的理性。为人生适当留空,并不是无奈于缺憾, 倒是保持一种花半开,月半圆的美丽。 ——摘自《给季节留空》 澜涛 3、比如说,先秦诸子中,我们可以从孔子那里读到一颗爱心,构建和谐;在孟 子那里读到一股正气,平治天下;在墨子那里读到一腔热血,救助苦难;在韩非 那里读到一双冷眼,直面人生;在老子那里读到生活辩证法;在庄子那里读到艺 术人生观;在荀子那里读到科学进取心——在孔、孟、墨、韩那里,我读到了人 生态度,在老子、庄子、荀子那里我读到了人生智慧。 ——摘自《我们为何读经典》易中天

读书笔记〃读物推介

《谁动了我的奶酪》 作者:斯宾塞〃约翰逊 内容简介:主人公老鼠嗅嗅和匆匆以及小矮人唧唧和哼哼身处一个迷宫中,他们 喜欢奶酪,而且在奶酪 C 站也有他们想要的奶酪。只是 C 站的奶酪突然不见了。 两只小老鼠毫不犹豫地去寻找奶酪。而唧唧和哼哼却在回避着现实。直到后来, 唧唧才醒悟并且出发去寻找奶酪,他终于在奶酪 N 站找到了奶酪,并见到早到的 两只小老鼠。只有哼哼一人还没有醒悟! 我的感想:改变是随时有可能降临的,积极地面对改变会让你重新获得更香的奶 酪。只有迈出那一步,才会成功。

生活随笔

2007 年 9 月 16 日

我沏潮州功夫茶 我们潮州人最中意饮茶,茶具也非常讲究。通常是一个盒形的底座置有一个 小巧的盖杯或小茶壶另配四个如小酒杯一样的小茶杯,盒形的底座表面是娄空 的,洗杯水可以从这儿倒入盒内。茶具种类很多,有宜兴茶具,精瓷茶具,玉石 茶具,景泰蓝茶具……茶具上绘着金花彩画,和一些历史故事中的杰出人物,古 香古色的十分精美。 星期天午饭后,我拿出一桶装满功夫茶的罐子,把盖子打开后,一股茶叶的 清香扑鼻而来。我贪婪地作了一个深呼吸,然后慢慢地呼出一口气,说: “这茶 叶真香! ”我学着阿姨平时沏茶的方法,小心地把茶叶舀了一勺,放入盖杯里冲 入开水

,稍泡一会儿,然后把第一次泡出的茶水倒掉,这是剩下的茶叶更干净,

(www.wenku1.com)更清香, 第二次又冲入开水多泡一会儿,然后我再把泡好的茶汁倒入事先洗好的 茶杯里。小茶杯里的茶水的颜色是黄黄的,亮亮的,香气四溢,不一会儿,满屋 生香。我把沏好的茶端到爸爸妈妈的面前,请他们品尝我泡的铁观音,爸爸妈妈 脸上露出满意的笑容。我轻轻地呷了一口那茶,苦中带香甜,叫人回味无穷,越 喝越想喝,每喝完一杯,就要把小茶杯冲洗一次,然后再倒茶喝,这也是潮州功 夫茶的一大特点。 据悉茶叶含有丰富的维生素,能提神醒脑,帮助消化,是上等的饮品,所以 我们潮州人最喜欢和功夫茶。 潮州的功夫茶代表着潮州悠久的饮食文化,流传久远。爷爷说: “旅居海外的太 公公一家人远离家乡四辈人了, 在遥远的大洋彼岸布宜诺斯爱尼斯,但祖祖辈辈 都不忘潮州功夫茶。 ”

范文九:英语范文2

泰安市2010年中考英语作文题目:我们能为保护环境、减少污染做些什么? 今年6月5日世界环境日的主题是倡导“低碳生活”,老师就“节能减排”问题组织了一场主题讨论:日常生活中,我们能为保护环境、减少污染做些什么?请用英语写一篇不少于80词的短文,谈谈自己的想法。

参考词汇:

discussion, protect the environment, be caused by, ordinary people, instead

of driving cars, use plastic bags, cut down on, recycle, natural food, save energy, reduce pollutions

_______________________________________________________________________________

参考范文:

Our class had a discussion about protecting the environment. Here is my opinion.

I think the environment is one of our biggest worries. It was found out that a lot

of

air pollution is actually caused by ordinary people, not just by big factories.

There are

so many things each one of us can do every day. It’s best for people to take buses

or walk instead of driving cars. We should stop to use plastic bags for shopping. We

can cut down on waste, recycle trash and eat more natural food. In these ways we can save energy and reduce pollutions.

枣庄市2010年中考英语作文题目:用英语向同学介绍你的爱好

Write a passage in about 120 words introducing your hobby to your classmates.

The following points may help you.

What’s your name?

What’s your hobby?

How long have you been doing it?

How many of them do you have?

Where do you store them?

Do your family members

(parets, grandparents, cousins or your neighbors)

ask you to stop doingit or continue doing it?

Do you have enough room to store them in your apartment(house)?

What is the first one you ever got? Which one do you particularly love?

Would you like to start a club for them? Where?

Is your club free? How often is your club oopen?

How long is your club open?

Would you like your schollmates to visit your club?

参考范文:

My name is Simon. I like collecting books. I’ve been collecting books for seven years. I have three thousand books.

I have three bookshelves in which I store some of my books. I have to store the other books in our

sitting room. I have run out of room to store books, so my mom says I have to stop and sell some books.

The first one I ever got was A Dream of Red Mansion. I particularly love The Journey to the West, in which the king of monkey impresses me most every time I read. I’d like to start a book collectors’ club in my school library, which is free.

It is open from 10 am to 6 pm every Sunday. All my schoolmates are welcome to visit my club.

聊城市2010年中考英语作文题目:毕业典礼发言稿

假设让你代表今年的初中毕业生在毕业典礼上发言,请根据所给提示用英语写一篇发言稿。

注意:

1. 词数:不少于80词。开头和结尾部分已给出,不计入词数。

2. 发言稿需包括所给提示内容,不要逐词翻译,可适当发挥,使短文连贯、通顺。

3. 文中不得出现真实的人名、校名等相关信息。

Good morning,my dear teachers and schoolmates,

It’s a great honor for me to make a speech on behalf of the graduating classes.

How time flies! Our junior high school lives will come to an end.

________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for listening.

参考范文:

Good morning,my dear teachers and schoolmates,

It’s a great honor for me to make a speech on behalf of the graduating classes.

How time flies! Our junior high school lives will come to an end.

In the past three years, we’ve had a beautiful school and it provides us with a

good study place. Teachers are our friends. They’ve given us interesting lessons

and we all love them.

We’ve learned a lot from them, not only knowledge but also the way to solve

problems in life. Thanks for our teachers’ training, parents’ support and the help

from classmates. Without them, we couldn’t have so much wonderful time.

At last, we hope our school will become better, our teachers will be healthy for

ever and all our dreams will come true.

Thank you for listening.

东营市2010年中考英语作文题目:了解她的烦恼并写出你的建议

Emily将她的烦恼写在了博客上并征求大家的建议。请了解她的烦恼并写出你(Chen Lin-from Dongying)的建议,要求字数在100词左右,建议的开头和结尾已经给出,不计入总字数。

建议应包括:(1)孩子应尊重父母(2)父母经验丰富(3)父母的要求是对你的成长有好处的(4)„„ (5)多同父母交流沟通。

Possible new words: respect v & n. 尊重; responsible adj. 有责任感的;

demand v. & n. 要求

Here are Emily’s problems on the Blog:

My problem is my parents. They never stop going on about(唠叨) how I should

keep my room clean, keep my hair tidy and wear smart clothes. They ev

en make me

do the washing-up after dinner every night! None of my friends have got such

terrible parents. What should I do?

Emily,USA

Hi, Emily. I think it’s lucky for you to have such good parents.

_____________________________________________________________________________ Chen Lin, Dongying

参考范文:

Hi, Emily. I think it’s lucky for you to have such good parents. You should

understand

and respect them, and do what they ask you to do. They have richer experience and better advice for young people. As your parents, they surely hope

you become an excellent person. Their demands are helpful for your growing up.

Every member should be responsible and do something for the family. So you

should do what you can do, such as keep your room clean and do the washing-up.

Remember: Learning by doing.

You should keep your hair tidy and wear smart clothes. Teenagers should look

like teenagers.

Anyway, if you have any problems, just talk with your parents. Chen Lin, Dongying

莱芜市2010年中考英语作文题目:如何帮助灾区的学生

2010年4月,青海玉树发生了地震(earthquake),家园、学校受到了损坏。一名灾区的学生(Zhuoma)下周将来你们班。她将在你们班学习一年。请根据表格提示,用英语写一篇短文,谈谈你将如何帮助她,并适当写出自己的想法。

注意:

1、字数要控制在80-100词左右。

2、不要出现你的姓名和学校信息。

3、开头已给出,不计入总词数。

Zhuoma will come to our class next week.She’s from

_______________________________________________________________________________

参考范文:

Zhuoma is a 13-year-old girl. She will come to our class next week. She’s

from Yushu, Qinghai. In her hometown, she couldn’t go to school because of the

earthquake. She’ll study with us for a year. As her new classmate, I’ll try my

best

to help her. When she comes, I’ll introduce my friends to her and show her

around

our school. On weekdays, I’m going to give her some school things. I’m

good at English, so I can help her with her English. I’ll help her join our English

club. Maybe she is lonely on weekends. I can invite her to my home. We’ll have

dinner together. Then, we can play games or watch TV.

I’ll do my best to make her happy and feel at home. In my opinion, all

Chinese come from a family. We should help each other.

安徽省2010年中考英语作文题目:给公司写封电子邮件

假定你叫张华,最近从报纸上得知美国某公司将在你的家乡建一座工厂,请给该公司写封电子邮件。要点如下:

表示欢迎:有利于家乡发展等;

感到担忧:造成环境污染等;

希望了解有关环保措施及更多信息。

注意:1.词数80-100;

2.请不要逐句翻译,可适当发挥以使行文连贯;

3.邮件的开头和结尾已为你写好,不计入总词数。

参考范文:

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am a middle school student. I have recently learned from the newspaper that

you are going to build a factory here in my hometown. There is no doubt that it is good for the development of my hometown and it will provide us with more jobs. Most of us stand by the program. However, some of us are worried that the factory will make much noise and pollute the environment of the area. I would like to know whether you have any plans for the environment protection.

Would you please offer us more information about it?

I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

Zhang Hua

范文十:我与语文规范

我与语言文字规范

语言,是人与人沟通的纽带。

语言,是人与人交往的桥梁。

语言,是人与人共同的结晶。

在偌大的世界上,有着数不清的语种。汉语,英语,法语,日语,韩语……其中使用人数最多的是汉语,使用范围最广的是英语。每个国家都会有相当比例的人会两种以上的语言。所以,语言对人类乃至整个世界都有着重要的意义。

作为一名教师,必然要成为语言文字规范标准的先行者,规范的语言能够带动学生形成良好的语言习惯。在平时的教学工作中,我主要从以下几点做起: 一、 坚持教学中推广普通话。

新的中小学课程标准规定:小学低年级学习用普通话正确流利有感情地朗读,中年级能用普通话交谈,能清楚明白地讲述见闻及感受,高年级则做到稍做准备能作简单即兴发言;初中的“新课标”则规定学生说普通话能准确表达,讲述准确生动,高中能用普通话流畅朗读并养成说普通话的习惯,口语交际能做到恰当、灵活运用。由此可看出,我们在课堂教学中一定要用好普通话,推广普通话。让学生说好普通话。我认为应做到以下几点 :

1、端正思想 正确认识。

普通话并不难学,难的是对心理状态的调整和改善。许多同学在课堂上回答问题时担心自己的发音不准,同学们会取笑,不敢使用。针对这种情况,我们需要及时调节学生的心理状态,让他们放下心理包袱,大胆地开口讲。任何学习都有一个从拙笨到熟练的过程,学习普通话也不例外,要尽早达到熟练程度,只有课下多加练习,战胜畏惧心理,才能成为学习中的胜利者。反之,如果在学习中过分顾及面子,不敢坦然面对自己的发音缺陷,更不能以顽强的意志和艰苦的努力去克服它,这样是学不好的。作为教师要调整好他们的心理状态,使他们从心理上正确认识,说好普通话。

2、严格要求 提供环境。

任何语言都离不开具体的语言环境。它直接影响和制约着语言的学习和应用。在课堂上要求学生使用普通话回答问题,同学间的交流也要使用普通话。尽

量克服本地方言环境的负面影响,尽可能为自己和学生创造一个有利的说普通话的环境。我们老师们要严以律己、起好带头作用,把说普通话当作自己的职责规范,并落实到教学工作的各个环节中去。做到:在课堂教学与学生交谈等场合一律使用普通话。同时,在教学中要注意纠正学生口语表达不准确的现象。这样以来,把课讲得形象生动,提高了教学质量。

二、在教学中重视学生语言文字规范化 1.榜样示范,潜移默化。

著名语文专家张田若先生指出:教师写字身教重于言教。因此,在教学中,我首先起示范作用,勤练内功,提高自身写字的基本素养,掌握系统的小学写字教学的入门知识,不断地学习有关写字教学的理论知识。其次,在平时的板书和批改作业过程中,我努力做到安排好字的间架结构,注意字的笔顺,展示给学生端端正正,美观规范的字。此外,我还注重个别辅导,教学中经常走到学生中间,手把手教学生写字,让学生注意观察教师是如何一笔一划规范书写的。这样,我不仅可以提高自身的写字水平,养成良好的写字习惯,对于学生而言也起到了一个榜样示范的作用,这种教育的力量是无穷的,是潜移默化的规范教育。

2、规范入门,夯实基础

我认为要写好规范字,必须打好基础。因此教学中我努力做到:第一,让学生掌握正确的握笔姿势及坐姿。要求学生写字时,保证头正、肩平、身直、足安,保证一尺一寸一拳头。第二,让学生掌握正确的笔画笔顺书写。众所周知,汉字是由点、横、竖、撇、捺、提、折、钩八种基本笔画构成,任何一个笔画都有一个基本的形状,其他任何笔画的变化形态,都是在基本笔画的基础上发生的。因此,让学生掌握基本笔画的规范书写至关重要,尤其是掌握规范汉字笔画的运笔特点。也就是说,掌握每一笔画起笔、行笔、收笔的基本方法及力度。那么,如何写好基本笔画呢?在教学中我首先要求学生记住基本笔画的形状,然后仔细地观察,再对笔画的形状和字的结构进行临摹,掌握基本笔画的规范书写。

三、营造规范语言文字氛围。

学校是推广普通话,推行规范汉字的重要阵地。作为教师的我们更是推广普通话、推行规范汉字先行者。我们要带头在学校营造一个规范的校园语言文字环境。我们要树立规范意识,明确推广普通话,推行规范汉字的重要意义。语言是

人类社会最重要的交际工具和传播文化的重要载体,营造规范的校园语言文字环境,是学校精神文明建设的重要组成部分。说普通话,写规范字不仅仅只是一个说话写字的问题,它关系到一个人的综合素质和文明程度。语言文字是知识与文化的载体,语文素质的提升,是我们提高自己收集处理信息、获取新知识、分析和解决问题能力的基础。所以我们要营造一个规范的语言文字环境

在教学中推广普通话、推行规范字是合格教师的必备条件之一。教师的语言面貌、语言文字素质直接关系到教师的教学效果。作为二十一世纪的新型教师,我们要适应时代发展的新形势,不断提高自身的综合素质,更好的提高教育教学质量,履行教师的神圣职责。

四、在游戏竞赛中激励学生语言文字规范化

为了帮助学生说好普通话,写好规范字,在平时的教学中还应注意利用学生喜闻乐见的游戏和竞赛来激发学生的兴趣。比如在班级内开展“小小故事会”、“经典诗文诵读比赛”、“我是小小书法家”等活动,给学生创造一个展示平台,让他们展示自己的收获,展示自己的进步,展示自己的长处,让学生在展示中规范自己的语言,规范自己的书写,从而达到语言文字规范的标准。

在以后的工作和教学中,我还要继续努力,做好语言文字规范化这一工作。

“我与语言文字规范标准”征文活动参评个人信息表